Women of Afghanistan represent almost half of the country’s population. Nonetheless, they experience fundamental challenges related to their participation in national economic development. According to the Afghanistan Living Conditions Survey (2016-2017), 80% of men and only 20% of women represent the active economic population. In 2011, the estimated gross national income per capita for females was six times less than that for males. At the same time, the people of Afghanistan have begun to accept the idea of turning women into active economic agents. This paper was developed under the Executive Master in Economic Policy (EMEP) Programme offered through UCA’s Institute of Public Policy and Administration, supported by the International Development Research Centre (Canada), the Aga-Khan Foundation, and the Afghan Ministry of Finance. The EMEP Programme is being offered to Afghan civil servants through a partnership with the Ministry of Finance of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.