The Early Childhood Development (ECD) programme implemented by the Aga Khan Foundation (AKF) in Bihar focuses on providing quality education to children from marginalised and disadvantaged communities. Developmental research has shown that early childhood years are critical for physical, social, emotional, cognitive and language development. Investing in the early years of children’s lives is key to developing children as confident and creative learners and socially responsible members of society. However, access to quality early childhood programmes is often a challenge for children from marginalised and disadvantaged communities. Recent studies from Bihar have shown that children who directly enter Grade 1 without ECD experiences are at a higher risk of dropping out. Even if children stay in school, persistent patterns of underachievement are established right at the beginning. It is in this context that the Early Childhood Development programme focuses on an inclusive and pluralistic approach towards education by providing quality pre-school experiences to these children. A core concern of the programme is to ensure a smooth transition from early childhood development settings to primary education. The programme also lays emphasis on the holistic development of children and making parents and families realise the importance of early childhood education in their children’s lives.