In Pakistan, some 23 million children are out of school. The Aga Khan University Institute for Educational Development (AKU-IED) recently hosted an online discussion with educational experts titled "Out-of-school children: Who are they? What are their rights? What should we do?" to examine root causes of the issue of out-of-school children and ways forward. According to Associate Professor and Head of Graduate Programmes at AKU-IED, Dr Dilshad Ashraf, who specializes in curriculum, gender and non-formal education, "We had students of various ages in a single classroom but the teachers divided personal spaces, creating learning environments for all those children in a world so away from the amenities that we are so used to because these urban slums had issues such as no electricity, no access to clean water, flooding, disease, etc."