In the eastern Indian state of Bihar, the Aga Khan Rural Support Programme is implementing a rural livestock development programme for women entitled Project Mesha. Supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the programme builds the knowledge and skills of women as pashu sakhis or “friends of the animals”. The women, who function as goat nurses within their communities, are trained to provide basic, low-cost preventive health services for livestock. These services are not only intended to improve the health and productivity of goats but also designed to increase the financial independence of women in general. Pashu sakhis themselves have significantly increased their earnings.