Wood and Lacquer
Tambourines (daff) And Naqqar Drums
Turkey or Egypt
Materials and technique
Wood, ivory, mother-of-pearl, metal, skin
The daff, also known as the riqq, is a percussion instrument of the tambourine family, and is found in varying forms in different parts of the Muslim world. Used in a wide variety of settings - folk and traditional art music, as well as in Sufi ceremonies - the diameter of the daff varies between 20 and 60 cm. The round single-headed drum consists of a goatskin membrane stretched over a wooden frame, often richly ornamented and inlaid with mother-of-pearl. Attached inside the frame are metallic jingles such as pellet bells, rings, small cymbals and slightly convex or flat discs, all of which can be intrinsic to the performance. The three naqar drums are small hemispherical vessels of copper or brass over which a membrane is stretched. Naqars were originally made from goatskin stretched over the orifice of an abalone shell. These percussion instruments appear in pairs, one larger than the other. Two naqars were fixed to a belt (which ran through the loop on the brass frame) and were either looped over the saddle of a horse or carried by the performer. They were used in Turkish janissary bands and are the forerunner of both kettle drums and marching drums.
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