creation of Al-Azhar Park has been a catalyst for urban renewal in the Historic
The creation of the 30-hectare (74-acre) Al-Azhar park, undertaken in the historic district of Cairo by the Aga Khan Trust for Culture, has become a catalyst for urban renewal in one of the most congested cities in the world. With over one million visitors a year, the US$ 30 million Park – a gift from His Highness the Aga Khan to the city of Cairo -- not only generates enough funds for its own maintenance (through gate and restaurant receipts), but has proven to be a powerful catalyst for urban renewal in the neighbouring district of Darb al-Ahmar.
The project includes the excavation and extensive restoration of the 12th Century Ayyubid wall and the rehabilitation of important monuments and landmark buildings in the Historic City. It also encompasses an extensive social development programme, including apprenticeship arrangements, housing rehabilitation, micro-credit and health care facilities.
The multidisciplinary project presented a range of complex technical issues, including highly saline soils and the incorporation in the park of three large fresh water reservoirs for the city of Cairo, each 80 metres in diameter and 14 metres deep.
Builders had to clear a 500-year-old accumulation of fill and debris. The massive excavation required moving 1.5 million cubic metres of rubble and soil, the equivalent of more than 80,000 truckloads.
The horticultural challenges were also formidable. After the creation of specialist nurseries to identify and grow the best plants and trees for the soil, terrain and climate, over two million plants and trees were propagated. Over 655,000 have now been planted in the park.
To extricate the 12th century Ayyubid wall, which had been buried up to its crenellated battlements, it proved necessary to excavate to a depth of 15 metres. A 1.5-kilometre section of the historic wall, with several towers and battlements almost intact, then appeared in all its splendour.
In the low-income neighbourhood of Darb al-Ahmar, which is adjacent to the park, job training and employment opportunities are being offered in different sectors such as shoemaking, furniture manufacturing and tourist goods production. Apprenticeships are available for automobile electronics, mobile telephones, computers, masonry, carpentry and office skills. Micro-credit loans have enabled residents to open small businesses such as carpentry shops and a drycleaner. Hundreds of young men and women in Darb Al Ahmar have found work in the park, in horticulture and on project teams restoring the Ayyubid wall.
Three landmark buildings, the 14th Century Umm Sultan Shaban Mosque, the Khayrbek complex (encompassing a 13th century palace, a mosque and an Ottoman house), and the Darb Shoughlan School are also being restored.
Local housing has been renovated and returned to their owners. Housing rehabilitation activities undertaken by the Aga Khan Trust for Culture are expected to average 50 houses per year until 2007. A housing credit scheme is aiding private individuals in the rehabilitation of their own houses.
The project was intended to test the premise that there is an alternative to traditional remedies to the decline of historic neighbourhoods. These usually involved isolating monuments by the forced removal of people in surrounding neighbourhoods or accepting a laissez-faire approach that allowed commercial developers to set the priorities of a neighbourhood. In either case, residents were displaced.
The approach of the Aga Khan Trust for Culture, on the contrary, has been to stimulate rehabilitation without displacing residents, largely by ensuring that they have a stake in the future of their community—by helping create viable businesses through the provision of micro-credit and assisting owners restore crumbling houses, for example. As with all its undertakings, the Trust’s approach has been to work with local residents to identify priorities and then take practical steps to address these needs. Community priorities, including restoration of houses, health, education, solid waste disposal, job training and jobs, are now being addressed.
The construction of the park and the restoration of cultural monuments are meant to be catalysts for social and economic development and the overall improvement of the quality of life in the district. At the same time, the park offers a new vantage point with spectacular views of Historic Cairo’s countless architectural treasures, which will no doubt draw foreign tourists and the inhabitants of greater Cairo alike to the once-neglected area.
Restoration of Landmark Buildings
The illuminated dome and minaret of the Khayrebek Complex, part of an ongoing programme of restoration by the Aga Khan Trust for Cutlure in Darb al-Ahmar.On 26 October 2007, His Highness the Aga Khan, His Excellency Farouk Hosni, Egypt’s Minister of Culture, and His Excellency Dr. Abdel Azim Wazir, the Governor of Cairo, inaugurated the restoration and revitalisation of two landmark buildings in the district: the fourteenth century Umm al Sultan Shabaan mosque; and the Khayrebek complex, which encompasses a thirteenth century palace, a mosque and an Ottoman house. The spaces - meant for adaptive re-use - were immediately pressed into service for a clinic and a temporary school (while the school was renovated by AKTC). Services resumed in Umm al Sultan Shabaan mosque.
Restoration of Aslam Mosque and the public space around it began. The excavation and restoration of the Tarabay mausoleum also started. The Darb al-Shouglan school building - once a complete shell without a roof or floors - now serves as a centre for community activities and early childhood development. It also houses the Project’s offices, meeting spaces and a library.
A conservation plan for all the 13 shiakhas of the district was completed - a major step in creating a comprehensive urban development plan for the district. The aim of the plan is to preserve urban heritage and identify architecturally significant buildings which are under threat. Twenty-five action areas were delineated, laying the groundwork for a master plan that will not only preserve the district’s cultural assets but find ways to leverage those assets in sustainable ways, e.g., by drawing visitors from the Museum of Historic Cairo (now under construction by AKTC at the north end of Azhar Park) into the neighborhood on specially designed cultural itineraries.
Museum of Historic Cairo
The Museum is designed to give both Cairenes and foreigners insights into the amazing cultural and architectural heritage
of the Egyptian capital’s historic area.At the north end of Al-Azhar Park, AKTC is now building a Museum of Historic Cairo, in cooperation with the Supreme Council of Antiquities of Egypt. The Park site, bordered by 1.5 km of the old city’s Ayyubid wall on one side, and the Mamluk “City of the Dead” on the other, was a rubble dump for 500 years. Inaugurated in 2004, Al-Azhar Park is today a major attraction for tourists and Egyptians alike.
The Museum’s 2,500 square meter building will be situated at the entrance to the historic city. It is designed to give both Cairenes and foreigners insights into the amazing cultural and architectural heritage of the Egyptian capital’s historic area. The Museum will be complemented by exhibition spaces within the neighbouring Ayyubid wall and within major restored cultural buildings in the historic city, which visitors will be encouraged to discover, following special itineraries, as they leave the Museum.
Art and architectural elements from Heliopolis, the early settlements of Cairo, and the City’s major historical periods will be on show, including the Fatimid Golden Age, the periods of the Ayyubids and Mamluks, and the era of Ottoman rule. Special rooms will recreate the atmosphere of nineteenth century Cairo. The Museum will house some of the great wealth of art and artefacts of Cairo’s mediaeval heritage that are not currently on display to the public.
To conserve and restore the artefacts and artworks which will be shown in the Museum, AKTC has set up a conservation laboratory which is training young local technicians in this field. At the same time, important art and architectural elements for the Cairo Museum of Islamic Art are being restored in the same facility.
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