Engineering Office of the Hebron Rehabilitation Committee
Hebron Rehabilitation Committee (HRC)
Completed in 1995 and ongoing
Hebron, an old and sacred town 32 km to the south of Jerusalem, is a very important religious centre for Islam, Judaism, and Christianity. The ancient city lies to the south-east of the modern turn-of-the-century city, and possesses a remarkable stone architecture, most of which was built in the 18th Century. Since its occupation by Israel in 1967, Hebron has been a focus of Jewish settlement. Almost a decade ago, the Hebron Rehabilitation Committee was created, as a result of a decision by Yasser Arafat, to develop a programme to renew the town for Palestinian habitation.
In January 1997, Israel turned over 80 percent of the administration of Hebron to the Palestinian Authority, thereby enabling the actual reconstruction of the old town to begin. The sector under revitalisation consists of large, extended-family houses built of thick stone walls with vaulted superstructures and arranged in a compact urban texture. Most of the clusters do not suffer from major structural problems. No extensive reconstruction is contemplated, only work necessary to make them structurally sound and functional. The rehabilitation includes running water, sewage, and drainage services. The jury notes "the skills, competence, and courage of the community, as well as the architectural relevance of the work and the promising future of the rehabilitated city", and that "this approach is valid for urban situations in many other parts of the world."
Slum Networking of Indore City, Indore, India
Himanshu Parikh, Civil Engineer
Indore Development Authority
Completed in 1989 and ongoing
Slum networking is a community-based sanitation and environmental improvement programme for the textile manufacturing and industrial engineering centre of Indore, to transform its 183 slums into settlements that integrate the poor into the urban population as a whole. This city of 3,218 sq. km has a total population of 1,400,000 (1995), 28 percent of whom live in the slums. New government-built sewer, storm drainage, and fresh water services follow the natural courses of Indore's two small rivers near the heart of the city. All of the slums face a riverbank. As an incentive, a state government ordinance gave the slum dwellers long-term land leases, and the residents paid for and built their own private toilets and washrooms. The rivers, once filled with untreated sewage and solid waste, are now clean, the streets paved, street lighting added, community halls built, and the housing upgraded. The dwellings of the poor are not slums any more. The focus of the network is Indore's Krishnapura slum area, a district distinguished by historic riverside Hindu temples that are being restored. The shopping arcade on the opposite bank has such traditional architectural elements as balustrades, arches, and domes. For the jury, what is unique "is that the slum regularisation and upgrading exercise is part of a larger upgrading plan for the entire city. The application of this approach to other similar conditions would go a long way in overcoming the weakness of conventional urban upgrading projects, which seldom attempt to integrate slums into the urban fabric."
Lepers Hospital, Chopda Taluka, India
Per Christian Brynildsen and Jan Olav Jensen
Norwegian Free Evangelical Mission, India Trust
Completed in 1995
In 1983, Brynildsen and Jensen, then architectural students, visited the missionaries Clara and Leif Lerberg, who were ministering to lepers. The Lerbergs had been given a site by the local authorities for a leper hospital about 13 km from Chopda. The architects were asked by Mrs. Lerberg to devise a site plan for the facility that would provide a safe haven, a treatment centre, and headquarters for a village-to-village nursing programme. Brynildsen and Jensen created an elongated rectangular plan, bounded by continuous linear buildings that enclose a courtyard conceived as a "paradise garden". Indigenous materials were used throughout. The boulder rock walls are load-bearing. Roofs are barrel vaults of brick resting on concrete beams on top of the walls. The vaults are held in tension by 20 mm steel rods. Floors are stone slab, window sills of slate stone, and the finished roofs of white glazed tiles that reflect the sun's heat. Openings are spanned by stone slabs or brick arches. Window frames and doors are of teak, and door frames are steel.
More than 70 people worked on the site, and the only machine tools consisted of a truck used to transport materials and a concrete vibrator. Today, the Lepers Hospital serves hundreds of out-patients. Live-in patients work the fields around the enclave, and tend buffaloes for their milk. In the courtyard, trees and flowers give beauty and shade. The jury commended the architects for creating "an attractive and friendly sheltering enclave, within a barren and hostile environment. Out of minimal architectural form, they devised a design of stark simplicity that radiates calm."
Salinger Residence, Bamgi, Selangor, Malaysia
Jimmy C.S. Lim
Rudin and Munira Salinger
Ibrahim bin Adam
Completed in 1992
The Salinger House, located south of Kuala Lumpur, is a post-and-beam timber structure raised on stilts to reduce its impact on the land and the environment. As such, it is built in the traditional way of the Malays, yet is modern in a form that interprets rather than imitates Malay culture and reflects the client's Islamic faith. It has been designed with sustainable ecological principles in mind. Placed on a high elevation to reduce water run-off through the building during the monsoon rains, it is oriented to capture the prevailing winds. The plan is formed by two adjoining equilateral triangles, the larger for indoor living, the other a prow-like veranda. At the ground level is a hexagonal granite core containing the entrance, a small foyer, a toilet, and stairs leading to the first floor living room, dining area, kitchen and bedroom in the living triangle, and to the veranda; the stairs continue to the second floor dressing room, master bedroom, and study. The house was built completely by hand by traditional Malay carpenters. The only machinery used was a small cement mixer. Except for the handmade roof tiles, it was constructed throughout with a very dense timber highly resistant to water and termites. The jury found that the house "demonstrates that high technology and energy-depleting services can be renounced if sufficient craft and creativity are deployed, and that the deeper meaning of a vernacular architectural tradition can be combined with the surroundings of contemporary everyday life."
Tuwaiq Palace, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
OHO Joint Venture: Atelier Frei Otto; Buro Happold; Omrania
Arriyadh Development Authority
Completed in 1985
The Tuwaiq Palace hosts government functions, state receptions, and cultural festivals that introduce Saudi arts and customs to the international community, and vice versa. The building is enclosed by inclined curved walls, forming a sinuous curvilinear spine 800 m long, 12 m high, and 7-13 m wide, used for guest services and accommodations. It encloses outdoor sports facilities, gardens, and extensive landscaping laid out in a pattern of complementary spirals, circles, and curves, in harmony with the building's undulations. Mushrooming from the spine are tents supported by tensile-structure technology. The tents enclose the large-scale spaces: main lounges, reception areas, multi-purpose halls, restaurants, and a café. The landscape plan provides a dramatic contrast between the lush greenery of the outdoor spaces enclosed by the spine and the arid rocky plateau beyond its walls. Taken as a whole, the design makes reference to two local archetypes - the fortress and the tent - and reproduces the natural phenomenon of oases. Reinforced concrete, and steel masts and cables, comprise the basic structural materials of the building. The white tents are made of Teflon-coated, woven fibre fabric. Those facing the garden are of cable nets coated with custom-made, glazed blue ceramic tiles fastened to timber battens. The tents are enclosed by glass walls. The jury commended the building for its "architectural qualities and its setting within a dramatic landscape, the idea of a soft fortification, its hard and soft spaces, and its combination of concrete, stone, tensile structures, and landscaping."
Alhamra Arts Council, Lahore, Pakistan
Nayyar Ali Dada
Lahore Arts Council
Completed in 1992
The Alhamra Arts Council in the 1970s retained architect Nayyar Ali Dada to design a 1,000 seat multi-purpose auditorium that was built and completed in 1979. The council was later placed under the auspices of a government agency, the Lahore Arts Council, which oversaw the three subsequent phases of the project: four octagonal structures for administrative offices and art exhibition galleries that opened in 1984; a 450-seat theatre attached to the auditorium completed in 1985; and a 250-seat lecture and recital hall finished in 1992. Throughout this 15-year process, architect Dada used various combinations of polygonal shapes that meet the acoustic requirements of the performing arts. These forms are also ingeniously placed on the site to semi-enclose courtyards and green spaces.
Another basic idea to which he adhered was the use of handmade red brick with traditional local mortar as veneer for the cast-in-place concrete walls. Red brick is the main building material at the Lahore Fort and Badshahi Mosque, the two most important historic buildings in the city. It was also the material most widely used by the British, and recalls the red sandstone architecture of Mughal Lahore. The jury found the complex to be "a rare example of flexible spaces that has enabled several additions to be made over time, each of which has in turn enhanced, rather than detracted from, its overall architectural value. This is a very popular and successful public building, projecting its complexities in a simple and powerful manner."
Vidhan Bhavan, Bhopal, India
The State Government of Madhya Pradesh
Completed in 1996
Vidhan Bhavan, the new state assembly for the government of Madhya Pradesh, is located on a hill in the centre of Bhopal. Since the main access road is not axial but swings toward the site in an irregular pattern following the contours of the hill, the plan of the building and its interior gardens and courtyards was developed within an almost continuous circular exterior wall. This form established a visual unity and presence regardless of the direction from which one approaches it. The building's four main functions - a Lower House, Upper House, Combined Hall, and Library - require extensive administrative facilities, meeting rooms, suites for the political leaders, cafeterias, and common rooms. All of these diverse elements are linked by a series of gardens defined by two symmetrical architectural axes that intersect at the centre of the circle. These axes extend to the edges of the site and open into panoramic views of the surrounding city. Vidhan Bhavan is conceived as a "city within a city". The use of local red stone, handmade ceramic tiles, and painted surfaces refers to the architectural traditions of Madhya Pradesh: gateways, enclosures, courts, small domes, and other architectural details that develop a new imagery based on traditional forms. Large contemporary murals, sculpture, and paintings by local artists enliven the spaces. The jury commended the complex as "the creation of an ensemble that provides a wide range of spatial experiences as one moves through the complex".
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