Restoration Institute of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, and the Restoration Office of the Municipality of Bukhara, Uzbekistan
Municipality of Bukhara, Uzbekistan
Completed in 1975
The old city of Bukhara was founded 2,500 years ago. Within its ancient city walls and gates are 500 standing monuments: they include 24 madrasas, 48 mosques, 14 caravanserais, 9 mausoleums, 4 trading domes, the Ark citadel, and many hammams, old houses, and canals. The restoration programme began in the late 1960's under the USSR, and has been continued by Uzbekistan since its independence in 1990. The primary aim is to conserve the major monuments and landmarks in the centre of the old city, and to re-integrate them into the life of the bordering districts. Because most of the upgraded mosques, madrasas, mausoleums, and other monumental structures are no longer used as such, a new function was found for each. Some madrasas, for example, have been turned into craft centres, studios, and galleries. One has become a restoration institute where future restorers are trained. Other structures have had their old functions renewed. A caravanserai is once again a silk and cloth warehouse, and trading domes are renewed as active suqs. Among the great landmarks restored are the Samanid Mausoleum, the Mir-i Arab Madrasa, and the Kalyan Minaret. To open up the old centre, thereby allowing the monuments to be better seen, mediocre buildings of the 1950's were removed. Utilities have been upgraded, and the streets paved. Old Bukhara, no longer a derelict slum, is now a viable prosperous city. The jury believes that "the restoration of Bukhara sends a very strong message to the rest of the Islamic world of the need to restore and re-integrate old cities into new ways of life."
Conservation of Old Sana'a, Sana'a, Yemen
General Organisation for the Protection of the Historic Cities of Yemen (GOPHCY),
UNESCO, UNDP, and the governments of Germany, Italy, France, Netherlands, North Korea, Japan, Norway, Switzerland, & the United States of America
Completed in 1987
Since its founding 2,000 years ago, Sana'a has been a major trading centre for south-eastern Arabia. Once a seat of government for the early Islamic caliphs, it is today the capital city of Yemen. Typical houses in Sana'a rise to as many as nine stories. The lower levels are usually built of stone, and the upper ones of lighter brick. The windows are outlined in white gypsum and have fan lights of alabaster or coloured glass held in gypsum tracery. Because the urban expansion of the 1970's and 1980's had begun to threaten and eventually destroy the old city, in 1984 the Republic of Yemen created the General Organisation for the Preservation of Old Sana'a. By 1987, it extended its responsibilities to all of Yemen and became the General Organisation for the Preservation of the Historic Cities of Yemen (GOPHCY). UNESCO and UNDP assisted the preservation planning process, while technical assistance and funding were provided by the Yemeni government and by Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, North Korea, Norway, Switzerland, and the U.S.A. About 50 percent of the city's streets and alleys have been paved with patterned bands of black basalt and white limestone, and the repair continues. Old water supply and drainage systems were upgraded, and craftsmen are restoring the city's mud walls. Numerous buildings dating from the 14th, 17th, and 19th centuries have been restored. The jury notes that "this project has saved old Sana'a."
Reconstruction of Hafsia Quarter II, Tunis, Tunisia
Association de Sauvegarde de la Médina (ASM), Tunis, Tunisia
Municipality of Tunis, Tunisia
Agence de Réhabilitation et Rénovation Urbaine (ARRU), Tunis, Tunisia
Completed in 1986
The Hafsia Quarter is located in the eastern part of the old Medina of Tunis. Once a wealthy district, by the early 1960's it had deteriorated badly. In 1967, the Association de Sauvegarde de la Médina was established to study and protect the urban fabric of the old city of Tunis, and improve the living conditions of its inhabitants. The first phase of the reconstruction of Hafsia, completed in 1977, received the Aga Khan Award for Architecture in 1983. The current phase is the continuation of this work, and builds upon the earlier experience. It includes the upgrading of the existing water services and main utilities, and the rebuilding of roads and access routes, as well as the reconstruction of housing, shops, offices, and public facilities. In addition to the rehabilitation of existing dwellings, 400 new housing units have been constructed. These units adopt the traditional model of two-storey blocks arranged around an internal courtyard. The architectural vocabulary employs traditional elements such as mashrabiyya, partially covered streets, and accentuated corner details. This simplicity of expression not only relates to the historic context, but adds unity to the development, and responds to budgetary constraints. In dealing with such issues as appropriate institutional development, needed legislative changes, and effective financial implementation, the jury found the collaboration and inter-disciplinary co-ordination expended on Hafsia II to be exemplary. The experience gained and the solutions that evolved are relevant to all the varied problems faced by those who wish to save the historic old cities in today's Islamic world.
Khuda-ki-Basti Incremental Development Scheme, Hyderabad, Pakistan
Clients & Planners:
Hyderabad Development Authority, Tasneem Ahmed
Completed in 1989
Khuda-ki-Basti is a grid-like, planned layout within the 5500-acre Gulshan-e-Shabbaz housing development located in Hyderabad. It is the site of a development scheme devised by the Hyderabad Development Authority (HDA) to help the poorest families house themselves. In this sector homeless Pakistanis are given the chance to settle on land, and to obtain permanent. Given security of tenure, the families build their houses and provide infrastructure incrementally, as resources become available. The incremental development scheme is entirely self-financing - -there is no subsidy, formal or informal. The entire cost of the developed plots is borne by the beneficiaries, in instalments spread over a period of 8 years. The family designs and constructs its house in any material or style it can afford. The first house is usually made of reeds, wood, or cardboard. Slowly, a more permanent house of brick or cement block is erected, with roofs of asbestos tiles or corrugated tin. Ten percent of the owners eventually add a second floor. Materials are available locally. Each group of four houses is served by a septic tank linked to a pumping station. Over 70 percent of the houses have individual water connections, and the rest collect water from conveniently located taps. Electricity is also supplied to the area. Residents apply for individual house connections to all utility services after they have paid the charges; monthly instalments eventually repay the actual cost. Khuda-ki-Basti is also provided with education and health facilities as well as affordable transport service. The jury commends this successful effort to create affordable housing for the urban poor, seeing it as a model that can be widely applied everywhere.
Aranya Community Housing, Indore, India
Vastu-Shilpa Foundation, Balkrishna V. Doshi, Ahmedabad, India
Indore Development Authority, Indore, India
Completed in 1989
Aranya, 6 kilometres from Indore, will eventually house a total population of 60,000 in 6500 dwellings, on a net planning area of 85 hectares. The master plan, prepared by the Vastu-Shilpa Foundation in 1983, is designed around a central spine comprising the business district. Six sectors, each with populations of 7000-12,000, lie to the east and west of the spine and are diagonally bisected by linear parks. Ten houses, each with a courtyard at the back, form a cluster that opens onto a street. Internal streets and squares are paved. Septic tanks are provided for each group of twenty houses, and electricity and water are available throughout. The site plan accommodates and integrates a variety of income groups. The poorest are located in the middle of each of the six sectors, while the better off obtain plots along the peripheries of each sector and the central spine. Payment schemes, and a series of site and service options, reflect the financial resources of this mixed community. Eighty demonstration houses, designed by architect Balkrishna V. Doshi, display a wide variety of possibilities, ranging from one room shelters to relatively spacious houses. Most of the income groups buy only a house plot. Available to the poorest, in addition to the plot itself, are a concrete plinth, a service core, and a room. The down payment is based on the average income of the family, the loan balance being paid in monthly instalments. Brick, stone, and concrete are available locally, but owners are free to use any material they choose for house construction and decoration. The jury found Aranya to be an innovative sites-and-services project that is particularly noteworthy for its effort to integrate families within a range of poor-to-modest incomes.
Great Mosque and Redevelopment of the Old City Centre, Riyadh, Saudi, Arabia
Rasem Badran, Amman, Jordan
Arriyadh Development Authority, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Completed in 1992
The Great Mosque of Riyadh and the urban development of nearby public squares, gates, towers, parts of the old wall, streets, and commercial facilities, comprise the second phase of a master plan to revitalise the Qasr al Hokm district, the old centre of Riyadh. (The governorate complex, and the municipality and police headquarters were completed in the first phase.) For the new work, architect Rasem Badran has recreated and transformed the spatial character of the local Najdi architectural idiom without directly copying it. Externally, the complex is a group of buildings behind walls, punctuated by such traditional elements as gates and towers. Within, columns, courtyards and narrow passageways recall the traditional uses of space. The mosque, set within public areas, takes its traditional place as a centre of worship integrated into the urban fabric, rather than standing clear as an independent monument. Mosque components -- courtyards, arcades, and the flat-roofed prayer hall - are ordered and articulated in the traditional way. Two square minarets indicate the qibla direction on the skyline. The outer walls are clad in local limestone, penetrated by small, triangular openings in patterned formations, that resemble traditional building practices and create a further dialogue between the past and the present, while helping to cut the harsh glare of the sun. The courtyards and open squares are landscaped with palm trees to provide shade; granite benches and drinking fountains make them a popular place for families. The jury notes that because the mosque has already elicited interest in the intellectual community, its underlying design methodologies may affect for the better the design of future mosques.
Menara Mesiniaga, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
T.R. Hamzah and Yeang Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Mesiniaga Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Completed in 1992
Menara Mesiniaga is the IBM headquarters in Subang Jaya near Kuala Lumpur. It is a high-tech, 15-storey corporate showcase on a convenient and visually prominent corner site. The singular appearance of this moderately tall tower is the result of architect Kenneth Yeang's ten-year research into bio-climatic principles for the design of medium-to-tall buildings. Its tri-partite structure consists of a raised "green" base, ten circular floors of office space with terraced garden balconies and external louvers for shade, and is crowned by a spectacular sun-roof, arching across the top-floor pool. The distinctive columns that project above the pool floor will eventually support the installation of solar panels, further reducing the energy consumption of a building cooled by natural ventilation, sun screens, and air conditioning. Yeang's ecologically and environmentally sound design strategies reduce long-term maintenance costs by lowering energy use. Importantly, designing with the climate in mind brings an aesthetic dimension to his work that is not to be found in typical glass-enclosed air-conditioned medium-to-high rise buildings. The tower has become a landmark, and increased the value of the land around it. The jury found it to be a successful and promising approach to the design of many-storied structures in a tropical climate.
Kaedi Regional Hospital, Kaedi, Mauritania
Association pour le Développement naturel d'une Architecture et d'un Urbanisme Africains (ADAUA), Jak Vautherin, former Secretary General, Fabrizio Carol, Principal Architect, Birahim Niang, Assistant Architect, and Shamsuddin N'Dow, Engineer, Nouakchott, Mauritania
Ministry of Health, Nouakchott, Mauritania
Completed in 1989
Kaedi is located in a remote sector of Mauritania, near the border of Senegal. Its hospital serves a rural population. The extension adds 120 beds to the hospital, an operating theatre complex, paediatric, surgical and ophthalmic departments, a maternity and general medical unit, a laundry, kitchens, storerooms, a garage, and a workshop. The architects were not to replicate the earlier hospital's conventional concrete-frame buildings; their brief was to house the planned facilities by developing new low-cost techniques of construction employing local materials and skills, that would be applicable to other building types within the region. All workmen were local, trained on the site to perform the new techniques. Although the use of brick is not a part of the local vernacular, the architects chose to develop a structural vocabulary of hand-made brick, fired in kilns built near the source of clay. The structural repertoire that emerged, after on-site experimentation with a number of domes and vaults, included simple domes, complex domes, conventional half-domes, pod-shaped spaces, and self-supporting pointed arches which form winding circulation corridors. The overall plan for the hospital extension was derived from these forms. Adequate natural light enters the complex through glass blocks set into the brickwork and from interstices left between the brick arches. The response of both doctors and patients has been positive, and the community takes pride in the fact that the medical facility was built by their own people. The jury believes that the innovative construction techniques introduced may have wide significance, particularly since the successful functioning of the hospital should encourage similar initiatives elsewhere.
Mosque of the Grand National Assembly, Ankara, Turkey
Behruz and Can Cinici, Istanbul, Turkey
Turkish Grand National Assembly, Ankara, Turkey
Completed in 1989
The National Assembly is located in the central part of Ankara. The institution's new mosque, positioned on the main axis of the complex at its outermost tip, is for the exclusive use of members of parliament, and ministerial and administrative staff. The mosque is composed of a triangular forecourt, and a rectangular prayer hall overlooking a large, triangular, terraced garden and pool. Of particular interest to the jury was the manner in which elements from traditional mosque architecture have been abstracted and fragmented. Instead of a full courtyard with porticoes, for example, the architects have cut the courtyard in half along a diagonal line connecting the southern and northern corners. Bordering the courtyard porticoes, and taking their place within the structural module, are column bases without shafts or capitals, intended as echoes of traditional sheltered promenades. Other consciously incomplete references to the past include the truncated minaret, and the stepped pyramidal roof in place of the expected dome. The qibla wall opens onto the terraced garden, and this unorthodox arrangement completely transforms the act of prayer. The customary orientation of the qibla wall and mihrab toward Mecca is maintained, but by conceiving these elements in glass, with a landscaped garden beyond, worshipers are brought closer to nature. By means of these design strategies, the mosque acknowledges its secular environment while enhancing the acts of prayer and devotion that are essential to Islam. The jury believes that this new centre for worship is an important step in the development of a suitable architectural vocabulary for the design of contemporary mosques.
Alliance Franco-Sénégalaise, Kaolack, Senegal
Patrick Dujarric, Dakar, Senegal
Mission Française de Coopération et d'Action Culturelle, Dakar, Senegal
Completed in 1994
Built to house the Alliance Française, and to provide the provincial town of Kaolack with much needed library space, meeting areas, and classrooms, as well as performance and entertainment areas, the mission of the Franco-Sénégalaise Cultural Centre is to promote knowledge and understanding of the French language and culture. Its architect, Patrick Dujarric, grouped the various functional spaces of the institution on varied levels in a 3,212 square meter rectangular space whose built area covers only 750 square meters, thereby allotting generous space for outdoor activity. This arrangement of functions is in keeping with the traditional style of assembling public structures in local villages. The plan and massing are simple and ingenious in the way they integrate indoor and outdoor space, but intricately complicated in the use of iconography, ornament, and decoration. These designs synthesise traditional patterns in an entirely new way, re-integrating art into the very structure of architecture. The jury found the centre to be an impressive building, a modern complex in an African country that seems truly of its place.
Re-Forestation Programme of the Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
Client & Planners
Middle East Technical University, Kemal Kurdas, Former President, Ankara, Turkey
Middle East Technical University Re-Forestation Directorate, Alattin Egemen, Director
Completed in 1960 and ongoing
Preliminary planning for the Middle East Technical University (METU) re-forestation and landscaping programme began in 1958 in response to two major incentives. First, the Turkish capital of Ankara, surrounded by hills, suffers from heavy air pollution, a problem that can be ameliorated by green areas. Second, support for a green zone next to Ankara exists in the provision by Turkish law that forest land cannot be expropriated, thereby encouraging the creation of newly planted woods to limit urban sprawl. Since METU was established on land donated by the Turkish government, 4500 hectares of the campus were available for this public purpose. By 1960, the university's department of landscaping had tested tree species that would be appropriate, and in 1961, the re-forestation programme commenced. The area with non--irrigational plantings covers 3,000 hectares. Plants that require irrigation cover 800 hectares of the site, and are located within the grounds of the university to form landscaped spaces along the campus pedestrian network. The remaining 500 hectares consist of lakes and ponds. Every year a million more trees are planted. The varied habitats created by the forest and lake-shore areas provide excellent conditions for many species of mammals, birds, and fish. Plant life in great variety abounds. The METU green area helps make Ankara less dry, less polluted, and less humid - a better city to live in. Other universities in the region have launched their own re-forestation programmes. The jury hopes that this project will inspire a new generation of architects and planners to pay more attention to the role of re-forestation as an urban and regional planning strategy.
Landscaping Integration of the Soekarno-Hatta Airport, Cengkareng, Indonesia
Aéroports de Paris, Paul Andreu, Paris, France
Ministry of Communications, Jakarta, Indonesia
PT Konavi, PT Cakar Bumi, & PT Dacrea Avia, Jakarta, Indonesia
Completed in 1985 (phase I); 1992 (phase 2)
Development of the Indonesian economy, with the consequent growth in air traffic, required the government to increase the size of its international/domestic airport by adding a second terminal, raising its total capacity to 18 million passengers. Terminal II is very similar to Terminal I, completed in 1985, both having been designed by Paul Andreu, and based on the premise that unlike most contemporary airports, Indonesia's should reflect the culture and traditions of the country. Both terminals interpret the rural buildings of Java: clusters of shingled houses with steeply inclined roofs scattered among flat expanses of fields. Both integrate landscape and building in an exceptionally beautiful way. The airport structures are designed as open pavilions, set within the lush, natural environment, providing shade, shelter, and ventilation. The architect's wish to keep the pavilions and all the circulation spaces beyond the check--in areas completely open to the natural landscape was fully realised in Terminal I, but not in Terminal II, since the airport authorities wished the newer terminal to be free of rain and insects, and air conditioned. Windows had to be installed throughout the pavilions and circulation corridors of Terminal II, thus separating the interior spaces from the gardens. Even so, the landscaped setting, filled with tropical plants, offers the traveller a satisfying preview of the natural landscape of central Java. The jury noted with favour that both terminals, unlike most airports where the efficient movement of people is the primary objective, provide a variety of spaces for gathering and contemplation, alone or in groups.
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