Sedad Hakki Eldem, Istanbul, Turkey
E. Erkunt and O. Günsoy (Structural Engineers), J. Kansun (Electrical Engineer), A.T. Tokgöz (Mechanical Engineer), and I Elbirlik (Contractor), Istanbul, Turkey
Social Security Organisation, Istanbul, Turkey
Completed in 1970
In the 1960s when this complex was designed and in construction, Turkish architects were engaged in a reassessment of the tenets of the Modern Movement, leading them to seek a "new regionalism" in architectural expression, as an answer to the dominance of the International Style. This office complex reconciles both theoretical positions. It is as disciplined and rational as the modernist canon requires, yet without compromising its modernity, it responds to its regional context, respecting the historic landmarks nearby, and remains sensitive to its site, which is a steeply sloping plot at the corner of a major intersection.
At the time of its design the architect would have been expected to assemble the space into a high-rise slab that dominated its setting. This low, cascading structure links a dense old quarter of wooden houses at the top of the hill with contemporary buildings along a modern boulevard below. The jury believes this building to be "one of the earliest and most refined examples of contextual architecture in the international Modern Movement."
Dar Lamane Housing, Casablanca, Morocco
Abderrahim Charai and Abdelaziz Lazrak, Casablanca, Morocco
Promoconsult (O. Benani), Casablanca, Morocco
Compagnie Générale Immobilière (M'Fadel Lahlou, President, Abderrahman Amrani, Director General, and Mohamed Bastos, Secretary General), Rabat, Morocco
Completed in 1983
This low-income residential community for 25'000 people consists of over 4'000 units organised around a large central square in which the mosque, markets and festival hall are located. Surrounding this central area on three sides are six housing clusters made up of parallel rows of attached four- and five-storey apartment blocks separated by pedestrian streets that give access to all buildings. Entrances face each other and open staircases act as communal balconies.
The planning and design approach was based on the observation that for low-income, formerly rural or nomadic people, public space, pedestrian networks and the interrelation of housing groups are more important than the design organisation of the individual units. Furthermore, safety and security were seen to be of great importance.
The jury noted that Dar Lamane "represents an innovative approach to planning. Gateways mark the entrance to the shopping streets and link the clusters of housing; their introduction is a brilliant device to provide a sense of territoriality which is fundamental to the success of a housing project. Even more important is that the gateway embodies many layers of meanings and functions that are deeply rooted in Moroccan culture."
Conservation of Mostar Old Town, Mostar, Bosnia-Herzegovina
Stari-Grad Mostar (Dzihad Pašic, Director, and Amir Pašic, Assistant Director), Mostar, Bosnia-Herzegovina
Community of Mostar, Bosnia-Herzegovina
Completed 1978 through 1993
By the 1960s, the 16th-century historical core of the town of Mostar was physically deteriorated and commercially stagnant. It has since become revitalised and reactivated as a thriving business centre. Stari-Grad, the agency in charge of this restoration project, is a semi-autonomous organisation approved and subsidised by the Ministry for the Protection of Monuments and Nature of the Republic of Herzegovina in Sarajevo. Beginning in 1977, Stari-Grad spent three years documenting the historic centre. Subsequently it has undertaken the restoration of the river embankments, a 16th century Ottoman tower and bridge, a 17th-century clock tower, two mosques, a madrasa, private houses, a tannery and shops that date back to the 18th-and-19th centuries. The jury noted that the rehabilitation of this wide variety of building types "has been handled in an exemplary manner. All the restorations fit well into the general atmosphere of the old town and its homogeneous appearance is not disturbed; nothing is overdone or touristic."
Restoration of al-Aqsa Mosque, Al-Haram al-Sharif, Jerusalem
Isam Awwad, Jerusalem, and ICCROM - International Centre for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments (Cevat Erder, Director, Bernard Feilden, Director Emeritus, and Paul Schwartzbaum, Chief Conservator), Rome, Italy
Al-Aqsa Mosque and Dome of the Rock Restoration Committee, Amman, Jordan
Completed in 1983
The al-Aqsa Mosque, originally built in 711 A.D., has not changed significantly in size or plan since the 12th century. The client for the current restoration is a semi-governmental body established by Jordanian law. In 1969, at the time its work commenced, the precinct of the mosque and the Dome of the Rock, known as the Haram al-Sharif area, as well as the great monuments themselves were in a sorry state of disrepair. Most noticeably, the dome of the mosque had been reconstructed in concrete and covered with anodised aluminium instead of the original ribbed lead sheeting. The programme of extensive conservation began with the damaged dome and its paintings. The ribbed aluminium outer covering was replaced with lead to match the original. The 14th-century painted decorations of the dome interior, thought to be irreparably lost, were brought to light and completely reconstructed using the trateggio technique, a method that uses fine vertical lines to distinguish reconstructed areas from original ones. The rest of the mosque is also being restored as is the entire Haram area. A systematic and scientific spirit pervades the entire effort. The jury commended the very high technical quality of every aspect of the work, and particularly the restoration of the inner decoration of the dome which they found to be "exceptional and aesthetically satisfying."
Yaama Mosque, Yaama, Niger
Falké Barmou, Illela-Yaama, Niger
The Muslim Community of Yaama, Illela-Yaama, Niger
Completed in 1982
The first version of this mud brick Friday mosque, begun in 1962, took the form of a rectangular hypostyle prayer hall with the projecting mihrab as the only secondary volume. In subsequent repairs a central dome was added and four corner towers built. Each tower is an individual sculpture with banded tapering walls becoming gradually more elaborate toward its pinnacle. Crenellations of half circles decorate the parapets and rounded cones mark the corners. Mud brick structures require cyclical maintenance, alterations and repairs. For the Yaama mosque this activity was from the beginning an act of religious devotion in which the entire community participates, and so it continues to be.
Everyone contributes to the caretaking of the mosque in proportion to his or her ability to do so. Some make mud bricks; others carry them to the building site. Women carry water for brick and mortar production while others cut and gather wood. The jury commended the "manifest will to use traditional techniques in a creative manner, to experiment with them and to achieve results that induce a new awareness of their possibilities."
Bhong Mosque, Bhong, Rahim-Yar Khan, Pakistan
Rais Ghazi Mohammad, Karachi, Pakistan
Master Masons and Craftsmen, Bhong, Pakistan
Completed in 1982
The late Rais Ghazi Mohammad, the landlord of a large estate, began this project in 1932 in Bhong village, the most important of the scattered villages on his vast property. The mosque was to be the most glorious building in his palace compound which also included a smaller mosque, a madrasa and rooms for students. The work of specialists gathered from all over Pakistan and India (master masons and craftsmen from Rajasthan, calligraphers and painters from Karachi), the compound was designed and constructed over a period of nearly 50 years.
Broadly eclectic in their use of sources, the builders borrowed stylistic elements from nearby Lahore, as well as Iran, Spain and Turkey, and combined them with Western colonial elements of the 1940s. Materials and crafts used range from the traditional (teak, ivory, marble, coloured glass, onyx, glazed tile work, fresco, mirror work, gilded tracery, ceramic, calligraphic work and inlay) to the modern and synthetic (marbleised industrial tile, artificial stone facing, terrazzo, coloured cement tile and wrought iron). Only traditional materials were used in the mosque interiors. In the words of the jury: "Bhong enshrines and epitomises the popular taste in Pakistan with all its vigour, pride, tension and sentiment. Its use, and misuse, of signs and symbols expresses appropriate growing pains of an architecture in transition."
Shushtar New Town, Shushtar, Iran
DAZ Architects, Planners, and Engineers (Kamran Diba), Tehran, Iran
Karoun Agro-Industries Corporation and Iran Housing Corporation, Tehran, Iran
Completed in 1977 and ongoing
The inhabitants of this satellite town are the employees of a sugar processing concern nearby. This company's long range plans are to provide its workers not only with individual row housing, but with communal facilities and infrastructural services, to include a shopping centre and bazaar, a mosque, a community and cultural centre, a school, sports facilities, a bus station and a bridge to the old town across the river. The development is intended to revitalise the old town and to accommodate expansion generated by industrial growth in the region. The project was planned in five stages, to have been completed by 1985. Construction was started in 1976, and most of the first phase, comprising housing for about 4'000 inhabitants, was completed by 1977. Political unrest in 1979 disrupted the work. During the hiatus in construction, squatters and refugees moved into the complex, overcrowding and straining its infrastructure and resources. The work is currently ongoing depending on the availability of funding.
Kampung Kebalen Improvement, Surabaya, Indonesia
Surabaya Kampung Improvement Programme, with the Surabaya Institute of Technology, and the Kampung Kebalen Community, Surabaya, Indonesia
Surabaya Municipal Government, Indonesia
Completed in 1981
In the urban areas of Indonesia, most of the low-income population lives in kampungs. Almost one-quarter of the city area of Surabaya, an industrial metropolis with a population of about 2.5 million, is covered by them. Kampung Kebalen has an average density of 800 people per hectare living in densely packed single-storey wooden houses within networks of narrow alleys. The average monthly household income is US$ 35 to US$ 65. Potable water, electricity and sanitation were lacking. Flooding occurred during the rainy season.
The city upgraded Kampung Kebalan by adding footpaths, drainage, water and sanitation, efficiently constructed within a six-month period. The improvements cost US$ 400'000. All funds were from the government of Surabaya with a loan from the World Bank.
Ismaïliyya Development Projects, Ismaïliyya, Egypt
Culpin Planning (David Allen), London, England
Governorate of Ismaïliyya, Egypt
Completed in 1978
This project represents a critically important departure in the development of low-income housing in Egypt. It has channelled public housing subsidies toward local initiative and self-help. The effort involves the upgrading and extension of two existing settlements, Hai el-Salaam to the north of the city of Ismaïliyya, and Abu Atwa to the south. The initial phase required government donation of the settlement land to the project. A grant of 100'000 Pounds Sterling from the British government provided the initial capital. Later revenue to the housing agency amounted to almost 3'500'000 Egyptian pounds. This has been used for infrastructure and loans to the low-income inhabitants for purchase of their plots. The process is intended to be self-sustaining from land sales revenue. By 1986, 90'000 people had been housed in the two settlements. All have achieved the security of titled ownership.
Saïd Naum Mosque, Jakarta, Indonesia
Atelier Enam Architects and Planners (Adhi Moersid), Jakarta, Indonesia
Jakarta Municipal Government and Yayasin Saïd Naum, Jakarta, Indonesia
Completed in 1977
Named after the donor of the land it occupies, the mosque was designed in the Indonesian Hindu-Javanese architectural tradition, yet is well adapted to the Muslim form of worship. The mosque is square in plan, and symmetrical on both axes with deep verandas on all four sides. The upper tier of the two-tiered roof forms a lantern that filters daylight through patterned painted glass along its ridges. The space between the two tiers has been left open for ventilating the prayer hall. If the design conformed strictly to tradition, four interior wood columns would support the higher of the two roofs. To achieve an uninterrupted column-free space for worship, and clear view of the mihrab, these columns were eliminated. The wide spans thus produced required that the double roof be steel framed. This use of contemporary technology is carefully concealed on the interior by wood strips and sheathing, and on the exterior by clay tiles. The roof is well designed for heavy rain and the deep verandas protect the interior from rain and excessive glare. In this mosque, traditional Javanese idioms have been skilfully re-interpreted to produce a modern regional architecture compatible with the best indigenous work.
Historic Sites Development, Istanbul, Turkey
Touring and Automobile Association of Turkey
Çelik Gülersoy, Secretary General, Istanbul, Turkey
Completed in 1974 and ongoing
Many of Istanbul's 19th-and-20th century kiosks and pavilions in the royal parks along the Bosphorus were in bad condition and the remaining old residential districts of the city were in disrepair and under threat of demolition. In 1974 the Touring and Automobile Association began its work in the residential district near the Kariye Museum, repairing and painting the façades of 12 houses, replacing the cobbled streets and restoring the local fountain. In 1979 the Association leased from the city certain buildings and parks to restore, furnish and put to profitable use.
The Malta pavilion in Yildiz Park was the first of these restorations to be completed. A fine Baroque building, built in the second half of the 19th-century, it is designed for re-use as a luxurious restaurant, conference centre and setting for opulent functions. The Çadir Pavilion of the same period, set in a beautifully landscaped part of the park, with a splendid view of the Bosphorus, has been re-cycled as a coffee house. Emirgan Park, near Yildiz, is the setting of three other distinguished pavilions of the period, known as the white, the pink and the yellow. The first is now a concert hall and restaurant; the second, restored as a typical Bosphorus house with Ottoman furnishings and woodwork, is now a museum; the third has been converted into a tea room and snack bar. Among other successful projects is the conversion of an early 20th-century Art Nouveau palace at Çubuklu to a small and elegant hotel.
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