KIP Technical Unit (Darrundono, Chief; Pik Mulyadi, former Head of Regional Planning Office), Jakarta, Indonesia
Jakarta Municipal Government (Ali Sadikin, former Governor), Jakarta, Indonesia
Completed in 1969
This government-assisted, self-help community planning programme provides three levels of infrastructure: paved access roads, bridges and footpaths; water supply, sanitation and drainage canals; schools and health clinics. These improvements are threaded along existing rights-of-way, with little disturbance to the existing housing. Although the programme does not offer direct housing assistance, the improved access, flood control and increased economic activity within the kampungs has stimulated home improvement. At the time the award was given, 450'000 kampung dwellers were benefiting from the new infrastructure at a cost of US$ 60 per capita. From the jury citation: "[the programme] has improved living conditions, helped to integrate the informal sector with the city economy and encouraged individual initiative in the improvement of housing."
Pondok Pesantren Pabelan, Central Java, Indonesia
Amin Arraihana and Fanani, Calicut, Indonesia; LP3ES (Abdurrahman Wahid), Jakarta, Indonesia
Students of the Pesantren
Hamam Dja'far, Kyai, and Habib Chirzin, Deputy Kyai, Calicut, Indonesia
Completed in 1965
The migration by large numbers of rural people to Jakarta because of the poverty of their villages can be reversed if effective action is taken in the peasant communities. This Pesantren is a rural co-educational boarding school, a traditional Islamic educational establishment, which trains young people to assist the villages in reversing their decline. To establish sound interactive relationships between itself and the surrounding villages, the institution offers, in addition to its general education and practical skills programme, agricultural and medical services as well as training in building construction. In the latter programme students and villagers are taught the use of local resources, materials and technologies, and the means to integrate traditional rural design elements with modern materials and systems. The Pesantren's buildings, constructed by the students, show, in the words of the jury, "the promise of attaining a fuller architectural expression, discernible in the organisation of spaces and levels in the landscape. Although no striking architectural innovations are apparent at this time, this institution is capable of evolving an indigenous architectural expression responsive to modern rural needs."
Ertegün House, Bodrum, Turkey
Turgut Cansever, Istanbul, Turkey
Cemil Ormanlar, Istanbul, Turkey
Ahmet and Mica Ertegün, New York, U.S.A.
Completed in 1973
Bodrum, site of ancient Halicarnassus, has a beautiful harbour, a splendid Crusader castle and many traditional Turkish houses, of which the Ertegün house, originally two buildings joined by a gate, is one of the best. In 1973 it was converted to a summer residence with an addition at the rear which leaves the old structure totally independent. The old building is made of stone bearing walls with narrow windows, while the new is constructed of round concrete columns with wood infill walls, doors, and a series of adjustable oak shutters that filter light and air through the living and dining areas. The interior spaces flow freely between the new wing and the old. The jury gave a citation to this project for "the imaginative combination and re-use of two 100-year-old seaside houses and for demonstrating that old structures can be transformed into functional as well as beautiful environments without resorting to direct imitation. The different language of the linear addition which joins the two houses at the back stands in harmony with the existing architecture and shows how successfully the new can be integrated with the old. This project is also significant for having encouraged the trend toward conservation in the Bodrum area, where an important traditional house type is fast disappearing."
Turkish Historical Society, Ankara, Turkey
Turgut Cansever and Ertur Yener, Assistant, Istanbul, Turkey
Türk Tarih Kurumu - Turkish Historical Society (Ulug Igdemir, Director), Ankara, Turkey
Completed in 1966
This library and conference centre acknowledges local architectural traditions in ways that significantly affect its form. The three-storey skylit central atrium, for example, reflects the formal organisation of Ottoman madrasas. It functions as a protected extension of the urban space; all the major activities of the building are grouped around it. The careful control of light emphasises the public quality of the central space and the more intimate character of the surrounding spaces. Modern building products are juxtaposed against traditional local materials. The poured-in-place concrete frame, for example, is contrasted with rough-hewn Ankara stone and polished Marmora marble. Aluminium window frames exist in harmony with wooden screens. The jury noted that the building reacts "against the International Style that has characterised building in Ankara since the 1930s [and is] an example of what can be learned from tradition and a pointer to a more appropriate architectural language.
Mughal Sheraton Hotel, Agra, India
ARCOP Design Group (Ramesh Khosla, Ranjit Sabikhi, and Ajoy Choudhury, and Ray Affleck), Montreal Canada
Anil Verma and Associates, New Delhi, India
Ravindra Bhan, New Delhi, India
Indian Tobacco Company, Ltd. (A.N. Haksar, Chairman), Calcutta, India
Completed in 1976
A 290-room, five-star hotel, planned around garden courts and fountains, it has been designed to accommodate visitors to the Taj Mahal and Fatehpur Sikri. The hotel has been placed on axis with the Taj Mahal. Red sandstone, the building block of Fatehpur Sikri, has been used extensively in the hotel gardens, and white marble, from the same quarries that served the Taj Mahal, is used in the public areas. All materials and fabrics are Indian. The jury found that this hotel "expresses the culture and rich architectural tradition of the region with an entirely contemporary vocabulary of forms derived from functional needs. Its design and construction make full use of the available regional materials and technology, the abundant labour force and traditional crafts, for a creativity which is free from so-called Muslim architectural symbols."
Conservation of Sidi Bou Saïd, Tunis, Tunisia
Technical Bureau of the Municipality (Sanda Popa), Tunis, Tunisia
Abd El-Aziz Ben-Achour, Sidi Bou Saïd, Tunisia
Municipality of Sidi Bou Saïd (M. Baly, Mayor), Sidi Bou Saïd, Tunisia
Completed in 1973
This former summer resort village has become a year-round residential area of Tunis. Built on a hill above a magnificent cliff and the Bay of Carthage, the natural beauty of the site enhances the interest of the town. The buildings are a mix of Mauresque and some Italianate elements organised contiguously along a tangled pattern of streets surrounding the central mosque and suq. The coming of mass tourism brought increasing pollution and traffic congestion. Moreover, the latter posed a serious threat to the geological stability of the cliff. A management plan prepared by the District of Tunis, enacted in 1978, sets directions for the control of development and land use. The town received a citation from the jury "for the efforts over a long period of time by a community toward the conservation of their village. Based on true understanding of the architectural values of the village, legislation has been enacted controlling maintenance, expansion and vehicular circulation, and the sense of place has been kept. Sidi Bou Saïd has retained not only the picturesque quality of a village, but its very essence."
Rüstem Pasa Caravanserai, Edirne, Turkey
Ertan Çakirlar, Istanbul, Turkey
Department of Pious Foundations (Fikret Çuhadaroglu, Director, and Mehmet Özturk, Regional Director), Edirne, Turkey
Completed in 1972
The caravanserai (once a warehouse and overnight stop for camel caravans) is located in the historical centre of the city. Built in the 16th century by the great architect Sinan, it was restored and converted into a 150-room hotel in 1972. Although the restoration itself represents a high standard of conception and performance, the hotel conversion proved impractical. The jury commended the restoration of an important monument in spite of the failure of its re-use. In their words: "While in its execution the work measures up to the established principles and techniques of restoration, the decision to convert the building into a modern hotel has proved unrealistic. This type of hotel with its sophisticated services requires spatial and technical flexibility which a traditional building does not possess. Despite these shortcomings, the attempt to rehabilitate a historic monument is commendable and points to an important direction if there is to be a positive policy in architectural conservation."
National Museum, Doha, Qatar
Michael Rice and Co., Baldock, England, and Design and Construction Group (Anthony Irving), Athens, Greece
Qatar Department of Public Works (Ahmad Assad al-Ansari), Doha, Qatar
H.H. Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamed al-Thani, and Ministry of Information (H.E. Mr. Isa Ghanim al-Kawari, Minister), Doha, Qatar
Completed in 1975
Qatar's old Amiri palace was reconstructed to form the nucleus of the museum. The palace complex consists of three courtyard houses, two reception halls and various service quarters, all within a walled enclosure. A two-storey arcaded structure at the centre of the compound, built in 1918, dominates the site. Added is a new three-level Museum of State that joins the north wall of the complex and completes the courtyard. The new building is partially below grade to reduce its scale. The arcaded façade is proportioned to echo the older buildings. Landscaping and a network of paths have transformed the compound into a lush garden, welcome in the inhospitable climate. The jury noted that "in a period of rapid social and economic change, when the widespread and indiscriminate destruction of the architectural heritage has broken all continuity with the past, the preservation, enhancement and adaptation to a new public use of this important group is a noteworthy achievement."
Ali Qapu, Chehel Sutun, and Hasht Behesht, Isfahan, Iran
IsMEO - Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente (Eugenio Galdieri), Rome, Italy
NOCHMI - National Organization for Conservation of Historic Monuments of Iran (Bagher Shirazi), Tehran, Iran
Completed in 1977
These three pavilions and their gardens are among the great Safavid monuments of Isfahan. The Ali Qapu is the main entrance to the palace complex of the city. Its upper walls and vaults, of lacquered stucco and wood, have been carefully restored. Hasht Behesht was structurally strengthened with concrete links and supports and its ceilings and wall decorations restored. As part of the extensive conservation and repair work on the Chehel Sutun, most of the great wooden columns of the large porch were removed from their bases, sawn in half and their central core hollowed out to receive and hide steel reinforcing rods. The jury commended this restoration "for the contribution it has made to the knowledge of Islamic planning, architecture and construction. Of particular significance is the training of Iranian craftsmen and technicians and the setting up by NOCHMI of its own work force in specialist skills. The programme as a whole constitutes a model for other countries with similar conditions."
Halawa House, Agamy, Egypt
Abdelwahed El-Wakil, Folkstone, England
Aladdin Mustafa (Master Mason), Mu'allim Attiyah (Plasterer), and Hassan El-Naggar (Carpenter), Cairo, Egypt
Esmat Ahmed Halawa, Cairo, Egypt
Completed in 1975
The architect has drawn upon traditional Islamic or Egyptian prototypes for the design of this house. In addition to the courtyard and its fountain, the house has a loggia, a wind catch, alcoves, masonry benches and a belvedere. Except for the master mason, plasterer and carpenter, who were skilled craftsmen, all other labour was done by local unskilled Bedouins. The vaults and arches were constructed by the "inclined arch" system without shuttering. The house works very well in Egypt's hot climate. The walls and roof are designed to provide good insulation, sunlight filters through mashrabiyyas, and the courtyard -- which is in shade throughout the day -- draws fresh sea air down through the wind catch. The paving materials also play their part; the marble in the living areas is cool, and the Muqattam stone used outdoors gives a surface that can be walked on with bare feet even at the height of summer. The design and construction, in the words of the jury, "represent a dedicated search for identity with traditional forms. The courtyard plan, the use of domes, vaults and arches, the articulation of space and sensitive use of light combine to produce a house which fully satisfies contemporary needs. This imaginative handling of traditional vocabulary is also enhanced by the consistent use of traditional methods of construction and the careful attention to details and craftsmanship."
Medical Centre, Mopti, Mali
André Ravereau, Aubenas, France
Ministry of Health and Ministry of Planning and Development, Bamako, Mali
European Development Fund, Brussels, Belgium
Completed in 1976
This medical complex consists of two clinics, one of which is a maternity centre, and a 70-bed hospital. Its design and construction respect Mopti's great mud brick mosque nearby and the low-scaled mud structures of the town. The walls and part of the roof structure are of traditional banco construction using a mixture of local grey clay stabilised with concrete. Surfaces are finished with a smooth cement coating. Window openings are provided with metal shutters shaded by brise-soleils and deep overhangs. Heights of rooms vary to provide clerestory vents which ensure a flow of air through the clinics and wards. The latter surround a private courtyard. The galleries adjoining this enclosure invite use for cooking and sleeping by the patients' families accustomed by tradition to staying nearby and preparing food for them. The jury commended the builders of this centre "for creating a medical complex which responds with great sympathy both to the culture and to the sensitive surroundings. The design takes into account local traditions and practices, and makes effective use of available materials and techniques of construction. The imaginative relationship of public to private spaces within the complex is not only successful in use, but helps to integrate the building into the existing urban fabric."
Courtyard Houses, Agadir, Morocco
Jean-François Zevaco, Casablanca, Morocco
Ministry of the Interior, Rabat, Morocco
Completed in 1964
Part of a massive reconstruction effort that followed a disastrous earthquake in 1960, this ingeniously planned, compact, middle-income housing development consists of 17 units of single-storey row houses. So cleverly interlocked as to allow each house five private patios and a service court, living and sleeping rooms enjoy light and air from two directions. Winter sun enters all these spaces, while the summer heat is moderated by cross ventilation. Economical in their use of urban land, the dwellings were also inexpensive to build, are easy to maintain and are suited to the life-style of an urbanised middle-income Muslim population. The jury cited the project for its "response in plan form to climate and, in a broader sense, to the demands of privacy. The exploration and development of the courtyard form for urban housing point a way towards appropriate unassuming design solutions in the heterogeneous character of contemporary Muslim cities."
Water Towers, Kuwait City, Kuwait
VBB, Stockholm, Sweden, Sune Lindström and Joe Lindström, Stockholm, Sweden, Stig Egnell, Gothenburg, Sweden, and Björn and Björn Desig (Malene Björn), Stockholm, Sweden
Ministry of Electricity and Water, Kuwait City, Kuwait
Completed in 1976
The water distribution and storage system of Kuwait City received a significant increment in 1976 when the Ministry of Electricity and Water built 33 towers with a combined storage capacity of more than 100'000 cubic metres. Distribution and service zones required the storage of large quantities of water in various locations. Included was the need for locating 9'000 cubic metres at the northern part of the city near the shore of the Persian Gulf. Because of the prominence of this location in the middle of a promontory in the Kuwait Bay, special care was given to its design. The main tower of this group is a hollow concrete column approximately 185 metres high that supports two spheres. The larger sphere, 75 metres high, contains a restaurant, banquet hall, indoor garden and a cafeteria. The lower half of the sphere is a reservoir with a water capacity of just over 4'500 cubic metres. The smaller sphere above it is approximately 120 metres high, and houses a revolving observatory with a café. The second tower of the group, not accessible to the public, supports a spherical water tank. Except for glazed areas, the spheres of both towers are surfaced in steel plates enamelled in bright colours, serving as sun reflectors and inspired by mosaic-surfaced Islamic domes. The third structure, a concrete needle equipped with floodlights, illuminates the other two towers. All the other towers in the system are mushroom-shaped and painted in varied patterns and colours. The towers were commended by the jury "for a bold attempt to integrate modern technology, aesthetic values, functional needs and social facilities in a public facility."
Intercontinental Hotel and Conference Centre, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
Rolf Gutbrod, Berlin, Germany, and Frei Otto, Leonberg, Germany
Ministry of Finance and National Economy, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Completed in 1974
This 2'000 seat conference centre and 170-room hotel is a synthesis of advanced structural techniques and revived local artistic traditions that had become almost extinct. In their directness and simplicity, the vernacular details and finishes, such as the suspended wooden lattices, accent the machined elegance of the aluminium-clad conference centre. The latter is structurally quite sophisticated, consisting of tent-like roofs suspended from steel masts. A small mosque, also shaded by a suspended lattice, is made of local basaltic stone. The jury commended this project as "an effort to combine modern technology and functional forms in the context of Islamic culture."
Agricultural Training Centre, Nianing, Senegal
UNESCO/BREDA (Kamal El Jack, Pierre Bussat, Oswald Dellicour, Sjoerd Nienhuys, Christophorus Posma, and Paul de Wallik), Dakar, Senegal
D'Iallo, Dakar, Senegal
Ministry of Education, Dakar, Senegal
CARITAS (Frère Romuald Picard), Dakar, Senegal
Completed in 1977
The teachers at this regional training centre for 80 youths developed a simple, low-cost, low-technology structural system, based upon a UNESCO prototype, which they have used to construct their own buildings. Solid, load bearing sand and cement block walls, and masonry arches, parallel to one another, support short-span barrel vaults. The vaults, whose thickness at the crown is only a little over 4 centimetres, were formed using three layers of cement mortar stabilised with wire mesh at the top of the vault. Rounded plywood struts were used to support the shuttering formed from millet matting. Buttresses counteract the horizontal thrust of the vaults. The jury commended the project's architects and builders for developing "a complete architectural language whose forms, sober and beautiful at the same time, correspond to its social ambience. A labour-intensive building system has been used here to revitalise masonry construction by training a local craftsman who in turn has trained others. It has thus provided a model for a number of different projects in Senegal."
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