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The Award Presentation Ceremony was held in Karaton Surakarta, Solo, Indonesia
Built to house the Alliance FranĂ§aise, and to provide the provincial town of Kaolack with much needed library space, meeting areas, and classrooms, as well as performance and entertainment areas, the mission of the Franco-SĂ©nĂ©galaise Cultural Centre is to promote knowledge and understanding of the French language and culture. Its architect, Patrick Dujarric, grouped the various functional spaces of the institution on varied levels in a 3,212 square meter rectangular space whose built area covers only 750 square meters, thereby allotting generous space for outdoor activity. This arrangement of functions is in keeping with the traditional style of assembling public structures in local villages. The plan and massing are simple and ingenious in the way they integrate indoor and outdoor space, but intricately complicated in the use of iconography, ornament, and decoration. These designs synthesise traditional patterns in an entirely new way, re-integrating art into the very structure of architecture. The jury found the centre to be an impressive building, a modern complex in an African country that seems truly of its place. (Find out more)
Aranya, 6 kilometres from Indore, will eventually house a total population of 60,000 in 6500 dwellings, on a net planning area of 85 hectares. The master plan, prepared by the Vastu-Shilpa Foundation in 1983, is designed around a central spine comprising the business district. Six sectors, each with populations of 7000-12,000, lie to the east and west of the spine and are diagonally bisected by linear parks. Ten houses, each with a courtyard at the back, form a cluster that opens onto a street. Internal streets and squares are paved. Septic tanks are provided for each group of twenty houses, and electricity and water are available throughout. The site plan accommodates and integrates a variety of income groups. The poorest are located in the middle of each of the six sectors, while the better off obtain plots along the peripheries of each sector and the central spine. Payment schemes, and a series of site and service options, reflect the financial resources of this mixed community. Eighty demonstration houses, designed by architect Balkrishna V. Doshi, display a wide variety of possibilities, ranging from one room shelters to relatively spacious houses. Most of the income groups buy only a house plot. Available to the poorest, in addition to the plot itself, are a concrete plinth, a service core, and a room. The down payment is based on the average income of the family, the loan balance being paid in monthly instalments. Brick, stone, and concrete are available locally, but owners are free to use any material they choose for house construction and decoration. The jury found Aranya to be an innovative sites-and-services project that is particularly noteworthy for its effort to integrate families within a range of poor-to-modest incomes. (Find out more)
Since its founding 2,000 years ago, Sana'a has been a major trading centre for south-eastern Arabia. Once a seat of government for the early Islamic caliphs, it is today the capital city of Yemen. Typical houses in Sana'a rise to as many as nine stories. The lower levels are usually built of stone, and the upper ones of lighter brick. The windows are outlined in white gypsum and have fan lights of alabaster or coloured glass held in gypsum tracery. Because the urban expansion of the 1970's and 1980's had begun to threaten and eventually destroy the old city, in 1984 the Republic of Yemen created the General Organisation for the Preservation of Old Sana'a. By 1987, it extended its responsibilities to all of Yemen and became the General Organisation for the Preservation of the Historic Cities of Yemen (GOPHCY). UNESCO and UNDP assisted the preservation planning process, while technical assistance and funding were provided by the Yemeni government and by Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, North Korea, Norway, Switzerland, and the U.S.A. About 50 percent of the city's streets and alleys have been paved with patterned bands of black basalt and white limestone, and the repair continues. Old water supply and drainage systems were upgraded, and craftsmen are restoring the city's mud walls. Numerous buildings dating from the 14th, 17th, and 19th centuries have been restored. The jury notes that this project has saved old Sana'a. (Find out more)
The Great Mosque of Riyadh and the urban development of nearby public squares, gates, towers, parts of the old wall, streets, and commercial facilities, comprise the second phase of a master plan to revitalise the Qasr al Hokm district, the old centre of Riyadh. (The governorate complex, and the municipality and police headquarters were completed in the first phase.) For the new work, architect Rasem Badran has recreated and transformed the spatial character of the local Najdi architectural idiom without directly copying it. Externally, the complex is a group of buildings behind walls, punctuated by such traditional elements as gates and towers. Within, columns, courtyards and narrow passageways recall the traditional uses of space. The mosque, set within public areas, takes its traditional place as a centre of worship integrated into the urban fabric, rather than standing clear as an independent monument. Mosque components -- courtyards, arcades, and the flat-roofed prayer hall - are ordered and articulated in the traditional way. Two square minarets indicate the qibla direction on the skyline. The outer walls are clad in local limestone, penetrated by small, triangular openings in patterned formations, that resemble traditional building practices and create a further dialogue between the past and the present, while helping to cut the harsh glare of the sun. The courtyards and open squares are landscaped with palm trees to provide shade; granite benches and drinking fountains make them a popular place for families. The jury notes that because the mosque has already elicited interest in the intellectual community, its underlying design methodologies may affect for the better the design of future mosques. (Find out more)
The project involves area restructuring, upgrading of existing public services, improvement of pedestrian and vehicular access, the re-construction of housing and commercial facilities, and the rehabilitation of existing structures. (Find out more)
Kaedi is located in a remote sector of Mauritania, near the border of Senegal. Its hospital serves a rural population. The extension adds 120 beds to the hospital, an operating theatre complex, paediatric, surgical and ophthalmic departments, a maternity and general medical unit, a laundry, kitchens, storerooms, a garage, and a workshop. The architects were not to replicate the earlier hospital's conventional concrete-frame buildings; their brief was to house the planned facilities by developing new low-cost techniques of construction employing local materials and skills, that would be applicable to other building types within the region. All workmen were local, trained on the site to perform the new techniques. Although the use of brick is not a part of the local vernacular, the architects chose to develop a structural vocabulary of hand-made brick, fired in kilns built near the source of clay. The structural repertoire that emerged, after on-site experimentation with a number of domes and vaults, included simple domes, complex domes, conventional half-domes, pod-shaped spaces, and self-supporting pointed arches which form winding circulation corridors. The overall plan for the hospital extension was derived from these forms. Adequate natural light enters the complex through glass blocks set into the brickwork and from interstices left between the brick arches. The response of both doctors and patients has been positive, and the community takes pride in the fact that the medical facility was built by their own people. The jury believes that the innovative construction techniques introduced may have wide significance, particularly since the successful functioning of the hospital should encourage similar initiatives elsewhere. (Find out more)
Development scheme to provide shelter to the extreme urban poor, while dealing with the problem of speculation. Residents pool their resources and buy services and eminities in blocks, and gradually upgrade their shelter towards permanence. (Find out more)
Development of the Indonesian economy, with the consequent growth in air traffic, required the government to increase the size of its international/domestic airport by adding a second terminal, raising its total capacity to 18 million passengers. Terminal II is very similar to Terminal I, completed in 1985, both having been designed by Paul Andreu, and based on the premise that unlike most contemporary airports, Indonesia's should reflect the culture and traditions of the country. Both terminals interpret the rural buildings of Java: clusters of shingled houses with steeply inclined roofs scattered among flat expanses of fields. Both integrate landscape and building in an exceptionally beautiful way. The airport structures are designed as open pavilions, set within the lush, natural environment, providing shade, shelter, and ventilation. The architect's wish to keep the pavilions and all the circulation spaces beyond the check--in areas completely open to the natural landscape was fully realised in Terminal I, but not in Terminal II, since the airport authorities wished the newer terminal to be free of rain and insects, and air conditioned. Windows had to be installed throughout the pavilions and circulation corridors of Terminal II, thus separating the interior spaces from the gardens. Even so, the landscaped setting, filled with tropical plants, offers the traveller a satisfying preview of the natural landscape of central Java. The jury noted with favour that both terminals, unlike most airports where the efficient movement of people is the primary objective, provide a variety of spaces for gathering and contemplation, alone or in groups. (Find out more)
Menara Mesiniaga is the IBM headquarters in Subang Jaya near Kuala Lumpur. It is a high-tech, 15-storey corporate showcase on a convenient and visually prominent corner site. The singular appearance of this moderately tall tower is the result of architect Kenneth Yeang's ten-year research into bio-climatic principles for the design of medium-to-tall buildings. Its tri-partite structure consists of a raised green" base, ten circular floors of office space with terraced garden balconies and external louvers for shade, and is crowned by a spectacular sun-roof, arching across the top-floor pool. The distinctive columns that project above the pool floor will eventually support the installation of solar panels, further reducing the energy consumption of a building cooled by natural ventilation, sun screens, and air conditioning. Yeang's ecologically and environmentally sound design strategies reduce long-term maintenance costs by lowering energy use. Importantly, designing with the climate in mind brings an aesthetic dimension to his work that is not to be found in typical glass-enclosed air-conditioned medium-to-high rise buildings. The tower has become a landmark, and increased the value of the land around it. The jury found it to be a successful and promising approach to the design of many-storied structures in a tropical climate. (Find out more)
Situated at the end of an axis generated by the symmetry of the National Assembly, the mosque forgoes the usual architectural vocabulary for this building type. It is a low structure, with a stepped pyramidal roof, and a fully glazed qibla wall. (Find out more)
Preliminary planning for the Middle East Technical University (METU) re-forestation and landscaping programme began in 1958 in response to two major incentives. First, the Turkish capital of Ankara suffers from heavy air pollution. Second, support for a green zone next to Ankara exists in the provision by Turkish law that forest land cannot be expropriated. Since METU was established on land donated by the Turkish government, 4500 hectares of the campus were available for this public purpose. By 1960, the university's department of landscaping had tested tree species that would be appropriate, and in 1961, the re-forestation programme commenced. (Find out more)
The old city of Bukhara was founded 2,500 years ago. Within its ancient city walls and gates are 500 standing monuments: they include 24 madrasas, 48 mosques, 14 caravanserais, 9 mausoleums, 4 trading domes, the Ark citadel, and many hammams, old houses, and canals. The restoration programme began in the late 1960's under the USSR, and has been continued by Uzbekistan since its independence in 1990. The primary aim is to conserve the major monuments and landmarks in the centre of the old city, and to re-integrate them into the life of the bordering districts. Because most of the upgraded mosques, madrasas, mausoleums, and other monumental structures are no longer used as such, a new function was found for each. Some madrasas, for example, have been turned into craft centres, studios, and galleries. One has become a restoration institute where future restorers are trained. Other structures have had their old functions renewed. A caravanserai is once again a silk and cloth warehouse, and trading domes are renewed as active suqs. Among the great landmarks restored are the Samanid Mausoleum, the Mir-i Arab Madrasa, and the Kalyan Minaret. To open up the old centre, thereby allowing the monuments to be better seen, mediocre buildings of the 1950's were removed. Utilities have been upgraded, and the streets paved. Old Bukhara, no longer a derelict slum, is now a viable prosperous city. The jury believes that the restoration of Bukhara sends a very strong message to the rest of the Islamic world of the need to restore and re-integrate old cities into new ways of life. (Find out more)
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